// What are we talking about?

The recast EU Energy Efficiency Directive, adopted in July 2023 includes a new obligation (Article 25.6), which requires Member States to ensure that municipalities with over 45 000 inhabitants prepare local heating and cooling plans. 

This proposition can be a GAME CHANGER to decarbonise the heating and cooling sector, and to provide citizens with healthier and more resilient living environments.

To maximise the potential of this measure, the Member States need to put in place robust legal and extensive support frameworks, which ensure that local governments have the knowledge, resources and capacity needed to effectively prepare and implement their plans.

This tracker shows the current state of play for local heating and cooling plans for each EU country. Below the map is our overall analysis translated into French, Polish, Italian, German and Spanish, in which we provide recommendations and best practices for Member States on how to best support local authorities.   

The tracker will be regularly updated to follow Member States’ progress on transposing the obligation into their national context in the coming two years. We are grateful for your feedback and input.  


// Check the tracker

How well do EU Member States support their local governments to prepare strategic spatial plans for decarbonised heating and cooling? Click on the filter on the left, compare the existing regulatory and support framework in each EU member state, pick a country and find out more! 


Ireland France Belgium Spain Portugal Austria Bulgaria Croatia Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland Germany Greece Hungary Italy Latvia Lithuania Luxembourg Malta Netherlands Poland Romania Slovakia Slovenia Sweden Sicilia Sardinia Corsica Greece Bosnia Serbia Montenegro kosovo Albania Northern Macedonia Moldova Ukraine

No mandate and no framework

Ideal mandate and supportive framework

Select a country

Found below is an overall analysis with key findings on the state of play of local heating and cooling plans across the EU. It also includes our recommendations to policy-makers on what will be needed to make them game-changing tools for decarbonised and climate-resilient living environments.

The analysis is currently available in English, but can soon be read in French, German, Spanish, Polish and Italian.

You can find below a description of the methodology used for the assessment and a bibliography list.

We are very thankful and grateful to the European Climate Foundation for their financial support and to all the persons who provided their time and insights for this analysis. Responsibility for the information and views set out in this analysis lie entirely with the authors.

Amélie Ancelle, Mélanie Bourgeois, Raphaël Chatelet, Loar Halleröd, Julien Joubert (Energy Cities team), and Radostina Primova (independent consultant).

Below a list of acknowledgements to those that made this analysis possible. The European Climate Foundation and the persons mentioned below cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained or expressed herein.

We thank in particular:

Lukas Kranzl (TUWien)
Michael Cerveny (Urban Innovation Vienna)
Herbert Hemis (City of Vienna)
Wolfgang Götzhaber (City of Graz)

Gawein Van Daele (Association of Flemish Cities and Municipalities (VVSG))
Grégory Tack (Energy ministry of Wallonia)
Cyrille Delneuville (Energy ministry of Wallonia)
Marianne Duquesne (Union des Villes et Communes de Wallonie (UVCW))

Kamen Simeonov (EnEffect)
Angel Nikolaev (Black Sea research Centre)

Tomislav Novosel (North West Croatia Regional Energy Agency (REGEA))
Andro Bačan (Energy Institute Hrvoje Požar)

Stelios Kyprou (Cyprus Energy agency (CEA))

Czech Republic:  
Jaroslav Klusák (Association of city energy managers)
Morgan Henley (CEE Bankwatch Network)
Michal Kuzmic (Czech Technical University)

Kirsten Dyhr-Mikkelsen (City of Copenhagen)
Maëlle Caussarieu (City of Copenhagen)
Birger Lauersen (Danish District Heating Association)

Valdur Lahtve (SEI Tallinn)

Illari Havukainen (Association of Finnish Local and Regional Authorities (AFLRA))
Laura Mäki (Association of Finnish Local and Regional Authorities (AFLRA))
Vesa Peltola (Association of Finnish Local and Regional Authorities (AFLRA))
Elina Seppänen (Tampere Municipality)

Sigrid Lindner (NRW4energy)
Eva Bode (German Association of Towns and Municipalities)
Rita Ehrig (German Energy Agency (DENA))
Theresa Henne (Kompetenzzentrum Kommunale Wärmewende (KWW))

Harris Andreosatos (Centre for Renewable Energy Sources & Saving (CRES))
Penny Kazaki (Sustainable City network)
Dimitris Papaleloudis (Sustainable City network)

Róbert Kubitsch  (FOTAV District Heating company)
Amon Ada (City of Budapest)

Neil O’Leary (Codema (Dublin’s Energy Agency))

Alice Denarie (Politecnico Milano (POLIMI))
Besnik Mehmeti (Italian National Association of Municipalities (ANCI))
Francesco Mezzari (Politecnico Milano (POLIMI))
Riccardo Battisti (Ambiente Italia)

Nika Kotoviča (City of Riga)
Jeļena Ziemele (City of Riga)

Paulius Martinkus (Vilniaus šilumos tinklai)
Lina Bubulyte (Vinius public renovation company)

Bruno Barbonie (Climate Agency of Luxembourg)

Abigail Mizzi (Energy Cities)

Anita Cieslicka (Forum Energii)
Anna Fijas (PNEC)
Justyna Glusman (Fala Renowacji)
Anna Jaskuła (PNEC)
Iwona Korohoda (PNEC)
Jakub Krzysztoń (PNEC)
Anna Soskula (Fala Renowacji)
Marek Tobiacelli (Krajowa Agencja Poszanowania Energii S.A. (KAPE))

Henrique Bonifácio (Regional Energy agency network (RNAE))
Joana Fernandes (Portuguese Energy Agency (ADENE)
Silvia Remedios (Portuguese Energy Agency (ADENE))

Simona Mic (Municipality of Bistrita)
Leeha Mihaila (Romanian Network of Energy Cities (OER))

Adela Syslova (City of Bratislava)
Lenka Ilčíková (Friends of the Earth)

Jure Čižman (Jožef Stefan Institute)
Vlasta Krmelj (Energy and Climate Agency of Podravje (ENERGAP))

Jan Johansson (City of Örebro)

Corentin Girard (València Clima i Energia)
Patxi Hernandez (TECNALIA)
Tomas Gomez Navarro (Universidad Politécnica de Valencia (UPV))

The Netherlands:
Stephan Brandligt
Astrid Madsen (Independent consultant),
Marie-Emilie Ingen Housz (City of Rotterdam)