In its 2007 Climate Plan, the city of Paris commits to reduce energy consumption and GHG emissions in public buildings by 30% by 2020. Accounting for 20% of the municipal building stock and providing one of the best cost-benefit ratios in terms of energy savings, schools were chosen to benefit from a vast retrofitting programme.
In the framework of this programme, organised in the form of Energy Performance Contracts, 600 kindergartens and elementary schools are to be refurbished in successive lots that allow for learning and iteration. Beyond its climate action goals, the project aims at achieving financial savings, notably thanks to contractual guarantees related to final energy savings. The project benefits from the European ELENA-EIB technical assistance.
School retrofitting programme:
The first Energy Performance Contract, designated as CPPE, was signed in 2011, and takes the form of a Public-Private Partnership. It regards the first lot of 100 schools. The second one (CREM), which should be signed early 2016, takes the form of a global procurement contract, a tool that was not available in the frame of the French legislation back in 2011, when the CPPE was signed.
If for the CPPE the private contractor brought the initial capital, in the case of CREM, it is the city that pays the investment upfront. However, the contracts include the guarantees on delivered energy savings. The reasons behind the switch from one contractual form to another are that the private pre-financing of the actions cannot be presented as an asset in terms of accounting4 . Besides, financial engineering is more complex for contracts such as CPPE.
For the CPPE contract, which is the only one tested so far, the process goes as follows:
The implementation of the programme is organised around a project management team within Paris municipality (Mairie de Paris), composed of three full-time municipal civil servants. This team is in charge of liaising with the city’s external partners which include:
Internally, the team also deals with different partners and municipal services such as:
This programme contributed to the development of a cross-sectorial vision of energy efficiency actions within the municipality. The experience acquired during the first phase of the programme allowed for overcoming the strict division of tasks and the silo mentality that prevailed in the internal organisation of the city.
Improved knowledge on energy efficiency issues determines the actions to be initiated under the following Energy Performance Contracts, especially better consideration of the input from the schools (e.g. accounting winter and summer comfort will lead to improving insulation).
As regards replicability, the city now has the technical knowledge to independently develop its own energy efficiency projects and assist other cities in doing so.
|Players||Impact of the programme|
|Municipality||Financial savings in the form of reduced operational costs related to lower energy bills for municipal school buildings.|
|Schools||Schools benefit from improved infrastructure and better heating systems but not financial savings, as they do not have their own budget.|
|School employees||Experience disruptions during the construction phase. They may also have to change their behaviour once the actions are implemented (for instance monitoring thermostats). In a few schools, the users complained about some measures (notably when reducing inefficiencies such as excessive heating of the premises during winter time).|
|Pupils||They may experience improved school infrastructure. The works are carried out during the holiday period, which limits the negative consequences for the pupils (and employees).|